Tag: film (page 1 of 2)

The archaeologist in film

There are many movies that involve history. Night at the Museum, Schindler’s List, Michiel de Ruyter, are only a couple of names. However, there are not that much films that involve archaeology, and even less films that involve archaeology in a archaeologically correct way.

So how historically correct is 300? (Source: Warner Bros.)

So how historically correct is 300? (Warner Bros.)

“Ooh you study archaeology? That is so cool, I always wanted to be like Indiana Jones when I was young.” How many times have archaeologists not heard this? Indiana Jones is still the top 3 of IMDb’s top 40 of archaeology-movies. Followed by other well-known titles as The Mummy, Jurassic Park (when will people learn the difference between dinosaurs and archaeology?), and even Pirates of the Caribbean.  But how archaeologically correct are some of these famous films really?

Provenance, Indy?
Indiana Jones, probably the most well-known archaeologist in the world, is at first a professor. In  Raiders of the Lost Ark you will see Jones give a lecture on a Neolithic site mentioning the dangers of folklore and treasure-hunters. This is actually a very realistic lecture, and many young archaeologists will have had similar lectures about case studies and the dangers that lurk around. It sounds a bit hypocritical though, as this warning comes from the world’s most famous archaeologist who does nothing when it comes to documenting finds and places. Indiana makes sure finds end up in museums, and therefore he is the good guy. Technically speaking, Indiana’s work is a form of archaeology, but this form has not been used since the Grand Tour went out of style. So you would think a movie made in 1981 would know the difference between treasure hunting and proper archaeology. And Indiana rarely had the time to make proper notes about provenance as he mostly ran from the sites as fast as possible after obtaining treasures (often chased by German enemies and large rolling stones).

Archaeologists may act differently than Indiana, but when asked in 2007 by a Lycoming College project almost all participants in the research answered that when thinking of archaeologists, they saw a man in the desert wearing khaki clothing and an ‘Indiana Jones hat’ digging for lost treasures to put these in museums. It might hurt even more, when the same research showed that most people think destruction is ‘okay’ if it means getting access to these treasures. Thank you Indy.

So what about provenance? It seems to be one of the most important things when it comes to archaeological finds, and the word is often used in Museum Studies. Indiana Jones does not seem to have heard of it though, because it means taking notes, photos, or at least some form of a soil sample before running off with some golden object. No wonder people think taking cultural heritage and selling it online is perfectly okay.

The ruins of Sparta. (Thomas Ihle)

The ruins of Sparta. (Thomas Ihle)

Spartans vs. mythical beasts?
Let’s get one thing straight: the film 300 (yes, from that famous line “This is Sparta!”) is not based on any historical or archaeological record. This Battle of Thermopylae is based on a comic book. Unfortunately, a lot of people who saw the movie don’t know this and think it is based on the legendary battle that took place in 480 BC.

A good movie can’t work its magic without some villain, some heroes, and some general fiction. This is where 300 differs from reality. Starting with Leonidas himself. Leonidas seems to be the only ruler, but Sparta always had two kings that ruled with equal power. And the army was not 300, but over 7000 men strong. Greek soldiers from other major city-states joined the Spartan king in his battle.

But of course, this is not what people think about. They wonder about the mythical warriors of the Persian army. Did the Persians really use rhino’s and elephants? No, they did not.
Elephants were not used in warfare until the 4th century BC, and this practice started in India. It took a while for the strategy to come to Persia so Xerxes could not have known of this beast as a tool of war. How about rhinos? Well, Rhinos cannot be truly domesticated or trained like horses and elephants. And have you ever seen a rhino? Those animals are like walking tanks, no way you can spur them!

So no war-beasts, no magic, and no freaky-looking mutant-creatures. The Immortals, however, did exist. They looked nothing like samurai, but they were indeed Xerxes personal bodyguard and made up the elite-troops of the Persian army.
The final, and very disputable, thing is the size of Xerxes’ army. The narrator of the film says that they were ‘in the millions’, and ancient sources do comply. But more recent research done by writer Tom Holland states that it was a maximum of 500.000 soldiers, coming from every corner and tribe of the Persian empire. The end, with the shower of arrows, is correct. In 1939 archaeologists found large numbers of Persian arrowheads and human remains, identifying the spot where the last Spartans died. During this final battle, king Leonidas was already dead…

Photo credit: Dr._Colleen_Morgan via Foter.com / CC BY

What archaeology really look like. (Dr._Colleen_Morgan via Foter.com / CC BY)

Learning… Always learning
There is one thing that is completely archaeologically correct about The Librarian’s franchise: we learn, and then we learn some more in the real world. They also talk about curiosity, knowledge, and proper storing (no touching!) of ancient artefacts. In all fairness, it seems that this franchise (which is now shooting the third season of its new tv-series) has done its research on archaeologists and their work. But a movie wouldn’t be a movie without something going wrong… So of course there are traps, moving walls, some romance, lots of treasure, you know: normal film-stuff.

So how archaeologically correct is The Librarian really? One thing has to be said for the movies: they get the mix of archaeology just right. Archaeologists do not only work with ancient pottery, human remains, or treasure. We use a mix of historic sources, linguistics, ancient artefacts, and strange locations. And archaeologists are no treasure hunters!

When it comes to proper archaeological reseach, it is true that Flynn is much more interested in information than Indiana Jones. Indiana does not do research, and focuses on just getting the treasure. Flynn at least stops to spot an arrowhead and wants to collect it as it is a diagnostic find. Remember that word from all survey-work done?
And the rest? Well… It is still a movie, which would probably not sell well if there wasn’t some action in it. And for some reason, archaeological remains really hate action. Something with breaking and getting lost forever.

De laatste Indiana Jones – Vandaag in

NaamloosVandaag in 1989 verschijnt Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade in de bioscoop. De kaskraker is het laatste deel van de trilogie die archeologie wereldberoemd maakte.

Indiana Jones is voor veel archeologen een soort icoon geweest, mogelijk zelfs de reden dat ze archeoloog zijn geworden. Een paar feitjes over ‘s werelds beroemdste schatzoeker:

  1. De naam ‘Indiana’ werd geïnspireerd door de hond van schrijver George Lucas. Die hond was trouwens ook de inspiratie voor Chewbacca.
  2. Dankzij Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom heeft Amerika nu een minimumleeftijd voor bepaalde films. De scene waarin een nog kloppend hart wordt uitgerukt bleek wat heftig voor een jong publiek en daarom werd de film later als PG-13 (niet voor onder de 13 jaar) bestempeld.
  3. Harrison Ford zal de enige acteur zijn die ooit Indiana Jones speelde, als het aan regisseur Steven Spielberg ligt. Spielberg wil Bond-achtige-scenario’s met wisselende acteurs voorkomen.
  4. Spielberg vond The Temple of Doom zo slecht (net als veel kijkers) dat hij daarop besloot een derde Indiana Jones-film te maken. Dat werd uiteindelijk The Last Crusade, die dus bedoeld is als verontschuldiging naar de fans.
  5. De laatste Indiana Jones-film (Kingdom of the Crystal Skull) wordt door vele fans niet als onderdeel van de serie beschouwd. Onder andere de link met aliens en het feit dat de film pas vele jaren later uitkwam, wordt gezien als bewijs dat de film er niet bij hoort.
  6. Indiana Jones zit vol met referenties naar Star Wars, de andere grote hit van George Lucas. Zo heet de club uit Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom ‘Club Obi Wan’.
  7. Om de acteurs veilig te houden in de scenes met slangen, staat er een glazen plaat tussen de dieren en de mensen. De cobra’s zijn namelijk echt.
  8. De ratten in The Last Crusade bleken nogal een probleem. Één actrice haakte af omdat ze te bang was voor de dieren. Maar de dieren waren zo belangrijk voor de film dat de filmmakers genoodzaakt waren ze te houden, en bovendien zelf te kweken om te voorkomen dat ze er te weinig zouden hebben (of dat ze ziektes zouden gaan meedragen). Een speciale verzekering zou bovendien de onkosten vergoeden mochten er ineens meer dan 1000 ratten tegelijk sterven.
  9. De grootste winnaar van de Indiana Jones-serie? De stad Petra! Voor The Last Crusade kwamen er hoogstens een paar duizend toeristen per jaar naar de antieke stad. Daarna kwamen er miljoenen mensen per jaar.
  10. De jonge Indiana Jones is trouwens een lid van de Boy Scouts omdat Ford en Spielberg dat ook waren geweest in hun jeugd.


‘s Werelds eerste filmstudio – Vandaag in

NaamloosVandaag in 1893 opent ‘s werelds eerste filmstudio de deuren. De filmindustrie start daardoor in Amerika.

Het is Thomas Edison dankzij wie de filmindustrie begint op te klimmen. De studio is gebouwd op het terrein van Edison’s laboratorium, en Edison’s kinetograaf wordt gebruikt om te filmen. Officieel heet de studio dan ook ‘The Kinetographic Theater’, maar die naam wordt al snel vervangen door ‘The Black Maria’. Deze bijnaam krijgt de studio omdat het de filmmakers doet denken aan een politieauto (de ‘Black Maria’s’ werden genoemd): klein, donker, en benauwd.

De bouw van de studio kost meer dan 600 dollar (nu zou dat 15.000 dollar zijn), en de ruimte bestaat uit één donkere kamer met een opklapbaar dak. Het nieuws van de studio trekt meteen de aandacht van acteurs, acrobaten, boksers, en andere artiesten die hopen beroemd te worden door film.
The Black Maria is geen lang leven beschoren. De gebroeders Lumière stoten Edison en zijn kinetograaf al vrij snel van de troon met hun cinematograaf, maar toch worden Edison’s films heel even een hit. In 1894 worden er enkele bioscopen opgericht die de kinetografische films kunnen afspelen. De eerste daarvan staat in New York.

Één van de eerste films die Edison opneemt in zijn studio is The Edison Kinetoscopic Record of a Sneeze.

The effect of music is something you can ‘touch’

When I was reading Berlin from Rory MacLean (in Dutch), the song Fire from Gavin Degraw started playing on the radio. Nothing wrong with that. But I was reading the story of Marlene Dietrich. When I was reading about Kennedy’s speach in the German capital, Chandelier was playing. It gave a whole new dimension to these already impressive stories. I felt pure fire take control!

IMG_3619But how can a song take such ‘control’ over you? Why do you get goosebumps when you hear a piece of music you absolutely love? It is shown in multiple studies that music is capable of affecting your mood and behavior. So, quite literally it will ‘take control’ over you. Or at least over your brain. Professor Patrick Groff wrote in one of his essays that music can create attitudes, moods and even self-concepts. That is quite an effective force. But how does this effect the way that you experience a piece of literature?

Professor Joanne Cantor wrote in Psychology Today about ‘background music’. She concludes at some point in her article that music can improve productivity on repetitive tasks. Reading a ‘simple’ book, is a repetitive task for the brain since most people start reading when they are around five or six years old. Music helps the brain to focus on this simple task. Upbeat music shows to be the most succesful in this study. It is also shown that it works best if the music is not played constantly, or (when you listen to a cd or the radio) when it changes from time to time. Cantor concludes this statement that music can even cause arousal and alertness. Which explains my excitement when I read a particular thrilling paragraph in a book, with thrilling music on the background (like Jackson’s Beat It during a fighting scene).

Music creates mood. During your childhood, you learn to associate certain sounds with certain emotion. Chirping birds? Happiness. Slow violins? Sadness. Soft tones and a piano or guitar? I am guessing on romance. So certain pieces of music do affect certain emotions. If you hear these sounds, while you are completely sucked into a book? Well, the music will affect you and the way you look back on to that part of the book. Hopefully in a good way.


This reminds me of a short film I had to make for an art-class in secondary school. It was quite a scary story, but when we put everything together in montage, it became hilarious. Everytime we watched it, to make sure it was edited correctly, we were rolling over the floor laughing our asses off. How could the story about a missing dog, and (the illussion of) a potential maniac be anything to laugh at? Well, it was not. But without any background music it was. When we put just simply spooky music under it, it became a completely different movie! It was scary as hell!

How does that work? Well, music can enhance the feelings you feel when reading. Filmcomposer Bernard Hermann stated that music can intensify inner thoughts and feelings. You can add terror, sadness, happinness or any other emotion to a scene (in music or books) with the right music. Simple dialogue can be easily uplifted into “the realm of poetry”, says Hermann.

In the 50s there was a movement among some directors that decided to withdraw music from films, since it was not realistic. In real life, music does not suddenly start playing at every moment (although my iPod thinks otherwise). The movement did not last very long. When a film is flat, it needs music to get the viewer through the scene. Music can eliven even a dead movie, which is why there is an Oscar for the best soundtrack. I always was a bit sceptic about this, until I made my own movie and it was a disaster without the background music. And besides, if you want realism? Don’t go to the movies. Walk around the park or something like that. Movies are supposed to be entertaining.

Filmmakers can use music to manipulate the audience. But you can do that to yourself as well. Music can change moods, can even create emotions you did not feel before. It is the reason why there is music therapy and why people change their music taste when they are incredibly sad or happy. So simply put, music is an essential part of life and arts that also happens to mess with your brain.

The Great Gatsby van Fitzgerald gepubliceerd – Vandaag in

The World's Work

The World’s Work

Vandaag in 1925 rolt The Great Gatsby van F. Scott Fitzgerald van de persen. Dit boek, onlangs nog verfilmd met Leonardo DiCaprio in de hoofdrol, is nu één van de grootste klassiekers op leeslijsten.

The Great Gatsby is het meest bekende werk van de Amerikaanse schrijver F. Scott Fitzgerald, die ook The Curious Case of Benjamin Button, en nog vele andere korte verhalen en romans schreef. Maar toen Fitzgerald ‘Gatsby’ publiceerde in de jaren ’20 schreef werd het boek nauwelijks verkocht. De schrijver klaagde dat de paar positieve kritieken die het boek kreeg, het verhaal niet begrepen. Het enige waar het boek goed voor leek te zijn, waren film- en toneelrechten.

Vorig jaar werd The Great Gatsby opnieuw verfilmd, met Leonardo DiCaprio in de hoofdrol. De klassieker werd daarmee nog eens nieuw leven ingeblazen. Maar toen Fitzgerald, een levenslang alcoholist, in december 1940 overleed was het boek nauwelijks 20.000 keer over de toonbank gegaan. Sterker nog, bijna geen enkele boekwinkel had het nog liggen! En nu, jaren later, wordt het boek aangehaald als ‘de maatstaf voor de klassieke Amerikaanse roman’.

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